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Contrived Tears with MMP-9

It is well known that the ocular surface is highly complex and constitutes various epithelial and glandular tissues (cornea, bulbar and palpebral conjunctiva, lacrimal glands and accessory eyelid glands) that secrete essential tear film components.1-10 Our Contrived Tears (Artificial Tears) with MMP-9 (an inflammatory marker) have subsequently been developed from many of these components known to be present in tears, balancing protein, salt, glucose and pH alike, in line with widely accepted tear formulations. Our Contrived Tears with MMP-9 are a low cost solution to your diagnostic and analytical needs, being sold in 5, 10 and 20 ml convenient volumes. The Tear Osmolarity of our Contrived Tears with MMP-9 is 300 mOsms/L with a non-diabetic glucose level of 200 µM at pH 7.4 and a MMP-9 concentration of 5 ng/ml.

mmp9

MMP-9 Kit

Our MMP-9 Kit, features 6 vials with differing MMP-9 levels. Our Contrived Tears (Artificial Tears) with MMP-9 (an inflammatory marker) have subsequently been developed from the many components known to be present in tears, balancing protein, salt, glucose and pH alike, in line with widely accepted tear formulations. Our MMP-9 Kit offers the same tear formulation as our standard tears (osmolarity - 300 mOsms/L, pH 7.4, 200 µM Glucose), but with varying concentrations of MMP-9, levels known to be found in regular and inflamed tears, 5 (regular), 25, 50, 75, 150 and 300 ng/ml. Our MMP-9 Kit is the ideal solution for both your diagnostic and calibration research needs.

 

 

MMP-9 in Tears

The ocular surface is immersed in the extracellular tear film which reflects not only ocular but general systematic health. Changes in the protein levels, within this film and tears are associated with ocular wound healing,11-13 dry eye syndrome,14 keratoconjunctivitis sicca15,16 and meibomian gland dysfunction,15,16 as well as systematic health conditions, such as diabetes17 and breast cancer.18

Matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs), specifically MMP-9 (gelatinase B), and MMP-2 (gelatinase A) are in tears and also in corneal tissue during wound healing and in ocular surface disease, including in dry eye syndrome.19-22 The MMPs are key regulators of inflammation, wound healing, tissue remodeling and pathogenic processes.23,24  Most MMPs are secreted in an enzymatically inactive state, as pro-enzymes (MMP-9 is secreted from cells as a 92-KDa proenzyme, the inactive form), which are activated (82 kDa for MMP-9) in a proteolytic manner by direct cleavage of the pro-peptide by another MMP or a non-proteolytic manner by organomercurials.25

We also offer activated Pro-MMP-9 (by Catalytic Domain MMP-3) in our Contrived Tear Solutions, Contact us at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. to learn more.

Need ELISA’s for your MMPs ?, contact Ursa BioScience at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Why is MMP-9 important ?

MMP-9 is an important BioChemical Marker of inflammation in distressed epithelial cells which is subsequently present in tears, whether patient inflammation is visible or not. MMP-9 quantitation may therefore help diagnose Dry Eye Syndrome19-22 and other ocular disorders in patients who do not demonstrate the classical symptoms of the respective conditions. Elevated MMP-9 levels indicate a patient may respond to anti-inflammatory treatments such as corticosteroids, cyclosporine and doxycycline.

All Ursa BioScience™ tear products are not intended for human or animal use.


 

Refrences

[1] Sobrin, L., et al., Regulation of MMP-9 activity in human tear fluid and corneal epithelial culture supernatant. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 2000. 41(7): p. 1703-1709.

[2] Gipson, I.K., The ocular surface: The challenge to enable and protect vision: The Friedenwald lecture. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 2007. 48(10): p. 4391-4398.

[3] Stern, M.E., et al., A unified theory of the role of the ocular surface in dry eye, in Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film, and Dry Eye Syndromes 2: Basic Science and Clinical Relevance, D.A. Sullivan, D.A. Dartt, and M.A. Meneray, Editors. 1998, Plenum Press Div Plenum Publishing Corp: New York. p. 643-651.

[4] Van Haeringen, N.J., Clinical biochemistry of tears. Survey of Ophthalmology, 1981. 26(2): p. 84-96.

[5] Jones, S.M. and K.K. Nischal, The non-invasive tear film break-up time in normal children. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 2013. 97(9): p. 1129-1133.

[6] Lorentz, H., et al., The Impact of Tear Film Components on In Vitro Lipid Uptake. Optometry and Vision Science, 2012. 89(6): p. 856-867.

[7] Rantamaki, A.H., et al., Do Lipids Retard the Evaporation of the Tear Fluid? Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 2012. 53(10): p. 6442-6447.

[8] Stahl, U., M. Willcox, and F. Stapleton, Osmolality and tear film dynamics. Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 2012. 95(1): p. 3-11.

[9] Evangelista, M., et al., Comparison of Three Lubricant Eye Drop Solutions in Dry Eye Patients. Optometry and Vision Science, 2011. 88(12): p. 1439-1444.

[10] Klenkler, B., H. Sheardown, and L. Jones, Growth factors in the tear film: Role in tissue maintenance, wound healing, and ocular pathology. Ocular Surface, 2007. 5(3): p. 228-239.

[11] Ollivier, F.J., et al., Profiles of matrix metalloproteinase activity in equine tear fluid during corneal healing in 10 horses with ulcerative keratitis. Veterinary Ophthalmology, 2004. 7(6): p. 397-405.

[12] Zhou, L., et al., Proteomic analysis of rabbit tear fluid: Defensin levels after an experimental corneal wound are correlated to wound closure. Proteomics, 2007. 7(17): p. 3194-3206.

[13] Zhou, L., et al., Proteomic analysis of human tears: Defensin expression after ocular surface surgery. Journal of Proteome Research, 2004. 3(3): p. 410-416.

[14] Helper, L.C., et al., Surgical induction of keratoconjunctivitis sicca in the dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc, 1974. 165(2): p. 172-4.

[15] Zhou, L., et al., Identification of Tear Fluid Biomarkers in Dry Eye Syndrome Using iTRAQ Quantitative Proteomics. Journal of Proteome Research, 2009. 8(11): p. 4889-4905.

[16] Zhou, L, Beuerman, RW., Tear analysis in ocular surface diseases. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, 2012. 31(6): P. 527-550

[17] Symeonidis, C., et al., Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2,-9) and tissue inhibitor (TIMP-1,-2) activity in tear samples of pediatric type 1 diabetic patients. Graefes Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 2013. 251(3): p. 741-749.

[18] Lebrecht, A., et al., Surface-enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionisation Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry to Detect Breast Cancer Markers in Tears and Serum. Cancer Genomics Proteomics, 2009. 6(2): p. 75-83.

[19] Carter, R.T., et al., Expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 in experimentally wounded canine corneas and spontaneous chronic corneal epithelial defects. Cornea, 2007. 26(10): p. 1213-9.

[20] Luo, L., et al., Experimental dry eye stimulates production of inflammatory cytokines and MMP-9 and activates MAPK signaling pathways on the ocular surface. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 2004. 45(12): p. 4293-301.

[21] Ollivier, F.J., et al., Proteinases of the cornea and preocular tear film. Vet Ophthalmol, 2007. 10(4): p. 199-206.

[22] Smith, V.A., H.B. Hoh, and D.L. Easty, Role of ocular matrix metalloproteinases in peripheral ulcerative keratitis. Br J Ophthalmol, 1999. 83(12): p. 1376-83.

[23] Manicone, A.M. and J.K. McGuire, Matrix metalloproteinases as modulators of inflammation. Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology, 2008. 19(1): p. 34-41.

[24] Visse, R. and H. Nagase, Matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases - Structure, function, and biochemistry. Circulation Research, 2003. 92(8): p. 827-839.

[25] Fini, M.E. and M.T. Girard, Expression of collagenolytic/gelatinolytic metalloproteinases by normal cornea. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 1990. 31(9): p. 1779-88.

 

 

 

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