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Contrived Tears with Lactoferrin

Contrived Tears (artificial tears) with Lactoferrin for your every need.

Our Contrived Tears with Lactoferrin have been developed from > 15 components known to be present in tears, balancing protein, salt and pH alike, in line with accepted tear formulations and tear lactoferrin levels.  Our Contrived Tears with Lactoferrin are a low cost solution to your diagnostic testing, instrument calibration and research needs and are sold in 5, 10 and 20 ml volumes. The tear osmolarity of our normal healthy subject tears is 300 mOsms/L with a pH of 7.4 and a lactoferrin concentration of 2 mg/ml. [1-12]

We also offer a Contrived Tears with Lactoferrin Kit (six * 1 ml volumes of artificial tears), with differing levels of lactoferrin, ideal for researchers either studying and / or calibrating diagnostic devices. Our Contrived Tears with Lactoferrin 6 Vial Kit offers the same tear formulation as our Standard Tears (osmolarity - 300 mOsms/L), but with varying lactoferrin levels, reflecting both normal subject, 2 mg/ml lactoferrin, as well as both higher and lower levels of lactoferrin known to be physiologically present under different ocular conditions [1-13], 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 5.0 and 7.5 mg/ml at pH 7.4. Larger volumes and different ranges of lactoferrin concentrations are available on special request to: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

All Ursa BioScience™ tear products are intended for research use only and are not intended for human or animal use.

Lactoferrin in Tears

Lactoferrin, also known as Lactotransferrin, is a multifunctional iron-binding globular glycoprotein of the transferrin family. Lactoferrin has a molecular mass of about 80 kDa and is present in a variety of fluids, including saliva, nasal secretions and tears. Lactoferrin is amongst one of the eyes most important immunological defense agents and plays a critical role in the maintenance of ocular surface health. [1-12]

In tears, lactoferrin can account for approximately 25% of total proteins by weight, with lower than normal tear lactoferrin levels (< 2 mg/ml) reported in cases of dry eye syndrome, herpes simplex keratitis and systemic infections such as HIV and Hepatitis C, to name but a just a few. Elevated levels of lactoferrin have also been observed in patients with Leprosy [13] (Hansen’s Disease), a chronic infection caused by the bacterium mycobacterium leprae and mycobacterium lepromatosis. [13]

Lactoferrin is secreted by the epithelial acinar cells of the lacrimal gland, and is necessary for the formation of the principle natural ocular antibiotic, lysozyme, also present in Ursa BioScience’s tear formulations. Low tear lactoferrin concentration is known to correlate with a diminishment in the secretory (aqueous output) function of the lacrimal gland, and is thus widely considered a confirmatory test for Aqueous Deficient Dry Eye (ADDE).


Cited References

[1] Abe, T.; Nakajima, A.; Matsunaga, M.; Sakuragi, S.; Komatsu, M.: Decreased tear lactoferrin concentration in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 1999, 83, 684-687.

[2] Balasubramanian, S. A.; Pye, D. C.; Willcox, M. D. P.: Levels of lactoferrin, secretory IgA and serum albumin in the tear film of people with keratoconus. Exp. Eye Res. 2012, 96, 132-137.

[3] Ballow, M.; Donshik, P. C.; Rapacz, P.; Samartino, L.: Tear lactoferrin levels in patients with external inflammatory ocular disease. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1987, 28, 543-5.

[4] Danjo, Y.; Lee, M.; Horimoto, K.; Hamano, T.: Ocular surface damage and tear Lactoferrin in dry eye syndrome. Acta Ophthalmologica 1994, 72, 433-437.

[5] Dikovskaya, M. A.; Trunov, A. N.; Chernykh, V. V.; Korolenko, T. A.: Cystatin C and lactoferrin concentrations in biological fluids as possible prognostic factors in eye tumor development. Int. J. Circumpolar Health 2013, 72, 284-288.

[6] Fukuda, M.; Wang, H. F.: Dry eye and closed eye tears. Cornea 2000, 19, S44-S48.

[7] Fullard, R. J.; Tucker, D. L.: Changes in human tear protein-level with progressively increasing stimulus. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1991, 32, 2290-2301.

[8] Kijlstra, A.; Jeurissen, S. H.; Koning, K. M.: Lactoferrin levels in normal human tears. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 1983, 67, 199-202.

[9] Kiratli, H.; Irkec, M.; Orhan, M.: Tear lactoferrin levels in chronic meibomitis associated with acne rosacea. Eur. J. Ophthalmol. 2000, 10, 11-14.

[10] Li, Y. W.; Zeng, W.; Zhu, Y.: The relationship between dry eye and lactoferrin levels in tears. Asian Biomed. 2012, 6, 81-85.

[11] McBride, J.; Walker, L. R.; Grange, P. A.; Dupin, N.; Akula, S. M.: Molecular biology of lactoferrin and its role in modulating immunity and viral pathogenesis. Future Virol. 2013, 8, 289-299.

[12] Versura, P.; Nanni, P.; Bavelloni, A.; Blalock, W. L.; Piazzi, M.; Roda, A.; Campos, E. C.: Tear proteomics in evaporative dry eye disease. Eye 2010, 24, 1396-1402.

[13] Daniel, E.; Duriasamy, M.; Ebenezer, G. J.; Job C. K.: Elevated free tear Lactoferrin levels in leprosy are associated with type 2 reactions, Indian J. of Ophthalm. 2004, 52,1,51-56



We offer Tear Analytical  Services, such as Viscosity and  Osmolarity determination for your samples.